There are a number of different types of sensors which can be used as essential components in various designs for machine olfaction systems. Electronic Nose (or eNose) sensors fall under five categories, conductivity sensors, piezoelectric sensors, Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), optical sensors, and these employing spectrometry-based sensing methods.
Conductivity sensors may be made up of metal oxide and polymer elements, each of which exhibit a modification of resistance when in contact with Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). In this particular report only Metal Oxide Semi-conductor (MOS), Load Cell and Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) will be examined, since they are well researched, documented and established as essential element for various machine olfaction devices. The application, where the proposed device will be trained on to analyse, will greatly influence the option of sensor.
A torque sensor, torque transducer or torque meter is a device for measuring and recording the torque over a rotating system, such as an engine, crankshaft, gearbox, transmission, rotor, a bicycle crank or cap torque tester. Static torque is comparatively simple to measure. Dynamic torque, on the contrary, can be difficult to measure, since it generally requires transfer of some effect (electric, hydraulic or magnetic) from your shaft being measured to your static system.
A good way to accomplish this is to condition the shaft or even a member attached to the shaft with several permanent magnetic domains. The magnetic characteristics of such domains can vary in accordance with the applied torque, and so could be measured using non-contact sensors. Such magnetoelastic torque sensors are usually employed for in-vehicle applications on racecars, automobiles, aircraft, and hovercraft.
Commonly, torque sensors or torque transducers use strain gauges applied to a rotating shaft or axle. With this method, a way to power the strain gauge bridge is essential, in addition to a way to get the signal from the rotating shaft. This can be accomplished using slip rings, wireless telemetry, or rotary transformers. Newer kinds of torque transducers add conditioning electronics and an A/D converter for the rotating shaft. Stator electronics then read the digital signals and convert those signals to Compression Load Cell, such as /-10VDC.
A more recent development is the use of SAW devices linked to the shaft and remotely interrogated. The strain on these tiny devices since the shaft flexes could be read remotely and output without the need for attached electronics on the shaft. The probable first use within volume are usually in the automotive field as, of May 2009, Schott announced it has a SAW sensor package viable for in vehicle uses.
An additional way to measure torque is by means of twist angle measurement or phase shift measurement, whereby the angle of twist caused by applied torque is measured by using two angular position sensors and measuring the phase angle between the two. This technique can be used in the Allison T56 turboprop engine.
Finally, (as described inside the abstract for all of us Patent 5257535), when the mechanical system involves a right angle gearbox, then your axial reaction force experienced by the inputting shaft/pinion can be associated with the torque felt by the output shaft(s). The axial input stress must first be calibrated up against the output torque. The input stress can easily be measured via strain gauge measurement from the input pinion bearing housing. The output torque is readily measured utilizing a static torque meter.
The torque sensor can function such as a mechanical fuse and it is a vital component to obtain accurate measurements. However, improper installation of the torque sensor can harm the device permanently, costing money and time. Hence, cdtgnt torque sensor has to be properly installed to make certain better performance and longevity.
The performance and longevity from the torque sensor along with its reading accuracy is going to be impacted by the style of the Force Transducer. The shaft becomes unstable on the critical speed from the driveline and results in torsional vibration, which can harm the torque sensor. It is necessary to direct the strain for an exact point for accurate torque measurement. This time is typically the weakest reason for the sensor structure. Hence, the torque sensor is purposely designed to be among the weaker components of the driveline.